Showing posts with the label Oral pathology


  SYPHILIS  SYPHILIS is a world wide chronic infection produced by treponema pallidum  History :christopher columbus and his crew returns from the new world possibly carrying syphilis Global epidemiology:15-49 years old- 6 million new cases each year Incidence decreased after penicillin Male is to female ratio is 1 is to 1 Fetal ,neonatal deaths- 3,00,000  ETIOLOGY: Treponema pallidum :gram positive ,motile ,spirochete and is pathogenic to human  ROUTE OF TRANSMISSION: Sexual contact  Vertical transmission  (mother to foetus) TYPES: 1)CONGENITAL  2)ACQUIRED : PRIMARY,SECONDARY,TERTIARY  1)CONGENITAL SYPHILIS : Transmitted to offspring only infected mother and not inherited  Totally preventable  Recognised if treatment with antibiotic is begun in infected pregnant women before 4 months of pregnancy  STIGMATA OF CONGENITAL SYPHILIS: 1)Head: Frontal bossing 2)Nose:Saddle nose 3)Eyes:Interstitial keratitis 4)Oropharynx;HUTCHINSON'S TRIAD  HYPOPLASIA OF INCISOR -screw driver shaped inci

CHERUBISM /FAMILIAL FIBROUS DYSPLASIA OF JAWS -Definition,Pathogenesis,Clinical features,Radiographic features,Histopathology and Treatment

  CHERUBISM SYNONYMS: 1)FAMILIAL FIBROUS DYSPLASIA OF JAWS 2)DISSEMINATED JUVENILE FIBROUS DYSPLASIA  INTRODUCTION: JONES in 1933  coined the term cherubism  They resemble cherubs ( chubby cheeked little angel in renaissance painting) Autosomal dominant fibro-osseous lesion of jaws DEFINITION : Rare inherited autosomal dominant disease that causes bilateral enlargement of jaws giving the child a cherubic facial appearance Regress with age ,composed of giant cell granuloma like tissue and does not form bone matrix  PATHOGENESIS: Mutation in gene coding SH3BP2 located on 4P16.3  Autosomal dominant trait  Deficiency of sex steroids leads to reduction in osteoclast formation which leads to excess bone formation  At puberty, Osteoradiol+testosterone will cause increase in plasma concentration which results in localised increase in osteoclast  Thereby,stabilizes the disease  CLINICAL  FEATURES: Male's are more commonly affected than female ,100%penetrance in males,50-70% in females Age:

Definition and Classification of odontogenic cyst -Oral pathology

  ODONTOGENIC CYST OF THE ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL REGIONS DEFINITION OF CYST:( kramer in 1947) Pathological cavity having fluid,semifluid or gaseous contents and which is not created by the accumulation of pus ,Its frequently ,but not always lined by epithelium . True cyst : Is a cyst with epithelial lining Pseudocyst:Cyst without epithelial lining  CLASSIFICATION OF ODONTOGENIC CYSTS OF THE ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL REGION Shear in 2007 classified cyst of the oral and maxillofacial region as : A) CYST OF THE JAW:                                     CYST OF THE JAW EPITHELIUM LINED CYST           1) DEVELOPMENT ORIGIN        2 INFLAMMATORY  ORIGIN 1 A) ODONTOGENIC CYST B) NONODONTOGENIC CYST G ingival cyst of infant                 N asolabial cyst D entigerous cyst                        M idpalatal raphe cyst of infants  C alcifying odontogenic cyst L ateral periodontal cyst E ruption cyst G landular odontogenic cyst O dontogenic keratocyst 2) INFLAMMATORY ORIGIN P aradental cyst and juv

Age determination in forensic odontolgy

 DENTAL AGE ESTIMATION - FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY PART 2 Age estimation using dentition may be grouped into three phases  1)Aging  in prenatal and early postnatal 2) age estimation in children and adolescents 3) age estimation in adults  AGEING IN PRENATAL,NEONATAL AND EARLY POSTNATAL: A)NEONATAL LINES: Primary tooth germ - 7 weeks in utero Enamel formation of deciduous teeth completes by 1st year. permanent 1st molar ( germ formation )  is 3.5 -4 months in utero  because of above said features this estimation in this group is very accurate  Neonatal lines - indicator  I f neonatal lines present implicates  -LIVE BIRTH ,in case of stillbirth ( loss of pregnancy ) - absent legal implication in case of infanticide  AGE ESTIMATION IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENT:  T ooth eruption:  deciduous - 6 months to 2.5 years  permanent - starts at 6 years ( eruption of 1st molar) Method to determine age in children and adolescents : VALUE OF 3RD MOLAR SCHOUR AND MASSLER METHOD TOOTH CALCIFICATION DEMIRJIAN&#

how do forensic odontologist use dental record to identify people?

  FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY -PART 1 Forensic odontology : Application of dental principle to legal issue Dental identification : COMPARATIVE METHOD POST MORTEM DENTAL PROFILING COMMON REASONS FOR IDENTIFICATION OF FOUND HUMAN REMAIN? CRIMINAL: Investigation to a criminal death cannot begin until the victim has been positively identified SOCIAL: its society duty to preserve human rights  Marriage : Individuals from many religious background cannot remarry unless their partners are confirmed deceased Closure: the identification of individual missing for prolonged period can bring sorrowful relief to family members  1) COMPARATIVE METHOD: A) ORAL AUTOPSY Rigor mortis -muscle stiffness ,myotomy to cut open the muscles Obtaining dental records: Dental charts,radiograph,cast  To see if there is any bite mark in the body To take salivary swab - source of DNA Photograph,radiograph Check for missing records  B) RUGOSCOPY ( POST   MORTEM PROFILING) Rugae help in gender ,race ,it also helps in both