Showing posts with the label General surgery


 CRUSH SYNDROME  INTRODUCTION : It is due crushing of muscles causing : Extravasation of blood Release of hemoglobin into circulation leading to acute tubular necrosis and acute renal failure CAUSES ; Road traffic accident  Earthquake Mining ,industrial accident  Air crash Tension increases in muscle that results in increased ischemic damage  3 days :urine discolored,scanty  Life threatening  EFFECTS : Renal failure  Toxemia,septicemia Gas gangrene  Disability with extensive tissue loss TREATMENT : Tension in muscle compartment is relieved by placing multiple ,parallel,deep incision in limb Mannitol is given to improve urine output Alkalisation of urine is done using sodium citrate /sodium bicarbonate  Hemodialysis is done - life saving procedure  Other measures : Oxygen therapy  Antibiotics Blood transfusion  Bladder catheterization  AIM OF THIS POST : Hello stencildent family ,the title is definitely not a click bait it is clearly not related with CRUSH !The aim of this post is to gi


  BURNS BURN is a wound in which there is coagulative necrosis of the tissue  Burns never occur at temperature less than 44 degree celsius  Scald is a burn but caused by moist heat  TYPES: 1)THERMAL :-Flame burns,scald burn  2)ELECTRICAL 3)CHEMICAL RULE OF 9 IN BURNS : Pathology of burns are divided into : 1)Local changes: 2)Systemic changes  1)Local changes : Severity of burn Extent of burn Vascular changes Infection SEVERITY OF BURN: Microscopic destruction of the superficial layers of the epidermis Desquamated within few days  No scarring EXTENT OF BURN : Length and width of burn is expressed by percentage of total surface area displaying either 2nd or 3rd degree burn,extent estimated by WALLACE RULE OF NINES  ANATOMIC AREA                                               PERCENTAGE OF BODY SURFACE  Head ,face and neck                                                    9%  right upper extremity                                                 9% left upper extremity                     


  PERITONSILLAR ABSCESS ( QUINSY) 1)INTRODUCTION: TONSIL-Subepithelial aggregation of lymphoid tissue which forms a part of waldeyer's ring Its ovoid in shape Situated in lateral wall of oropharynx QUINSY- Collection of pus in peritonsillar space between capsule and superior constrictor muscle 2)ETIOLOGY: As a sequelae of acute tonsillitis De novo  Causative organism :  Streptococcus pyogenes Staphylococcus aureus  Anaerobic organism   3)MECHANISM : One of the crypts or crypta magna gets filled 

Malignant Skin Tumors-Presentation,Clinical features,Management

  MALIGNANT SKIN TUMORS  1)INTRODUCTION: Skin is outermost coat of human body  Skin act as a protective cover against various insulting agents such as ultraviolet radiation of sunlight 3 malignant skin tumour : Squamous cell carcinoma Basal cell carcinoma Malignant melanoma 2)PRESENTATION : A)SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA: Carcinoma of cell of epidermis ,starts from prickle cell layer and migrate towards the outer surface. May occur in pre-existing lesion of skin: Marjolin ulcer Venous ulcer Leukoplakia Site: Junction of skin and mucous membrane eg(lip,eyelid) It is also seen in mucous membrane lined by stratified squamous epithelium (eg)tongue,mouth Predisposing factors: Scar,ulcer Exposure to sunlight or irradiation Bowen's disease Types: Proliferative Ulcerative  B)BASAL CELL CARCINOMA (RODENT ULCER) Common malignant skin tumors  Slow growing neoplasm Location: Majority of lesion found on face above a line from lobule of ear to angle of mouth Common Site : Eyelid Bridge of the nose Ar

Definition and Classification of Ulcer

                      ULCER DEFINITION :  An ulcer is a break in the continuity of covering epithelium ,either skin or mucous membrane due to molecular/cell death. PARTS OF ULCER: MARGIN  EDGE FLOOR BASE DIFFERENT EDGES: SLOPING EDGE- Red and seen in healing ulcer PUNCHED OUT EDGE- Seen in Syphilitic ,trophic ulcer UNDERMINED EDGE- Tuberculosis RAISED AND BEADED EDGE- Rodent ulcer EVERTED- Carcinomatous ulcer BEADED  CLASSIFICATION OF ULCER: C         U              P CLINICAL   ULCER   PATHOLOGICAL                            M                 N          S   MALIGNANT  NONSPECIFIC SPECIFIC        CLINICAL CLASSIFICATION:                      C ALLOUS ULCER                           S PREADING ULCER N ON -HEALING ULCER H EALING ULCER  PATHOLOGICAL  CLASSIFICATION: A)MALIGNANT ULCER: M ELANOTIC ULCER C ARCINOMATOUS ULCER R ODENT ULCER  B) NON -SPECIFIC ULCER A RTERIAL ULCER B AZIN ULCER C RYOPATHIC ULCER D IABETIC ULCER T RAUMATIC ULCER I NFECTIVE ULCER C ORTISOL ULCER V ENOUS ULCER