Showing posts with the label General medicine

Leptospirosis -cause,pathogenesis,clinical features,diagnosis and treatment

  LEPTOSPIROSIS  Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection which is  caused by spirochete  ZOONOTIC DISEASE ? Zoonotic disease are infection that spread between animals and human  Examples :plague,ebola,rabies SPIROCHETE? Spiral shaped bacteria Helically coiled  Highly motile  Disease caused by spirochaetes: lyme disease,syphilis,borreliosis LEPTOSPIROSIS  Hook in ends Periplastic flagella  Leptospirosis -animal reservoir is rat (rodent ) Spread through rat urine contaminated in flood water More common in rainy season  LEPTOSPIRA SPECIES : PATHOGENIC -LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS FREE LIVING-LEPTOSPIRA BIFLEXA Leptospira dont stain well and are best seen in dark field microscopy with silver impregnation stain  PATHOGENESIS : Leptospira common in rodent (rat) ,also known as rat fever When a person who has cut or abraded skin walks in flood , Sewage water mixed with rat urine ;leptospira enter in and cause infection  Undergoes 2 phases: Phase 1- leptospiremia Phase 2-immune phase  Biphasic illness

Definition and classification of liver cirrhosis-STENCILDENT

  CIRRHOSIS OF THE LIVER DEFINITION: Cirrhosis is defined as an irreversible chronic injury of the hepatic parenchyma and include extensive fibrosis in association with the formation of regenerative nodules TYPES OF CIRRHOSIS: 1)ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS: Causes:  consumption of large quantity of alcohol Increased frequency of alcohol nutrient factors  Pathogenesis: Fatty change in the liver Steatohepatitis (  hepatitis with infiltration of liver cell+inflammatory cell) Mallory bodies Necrosis of liver cell,replacement by fibrosis Regenerative activity of hepatocyte ( fibrosis to micronodule formation) 2)POST -NECROTIC CIRRHOSIS: Characterised pathologically by : Extensive loss of liver cell, Collapse of reticulum network Thick connective tissue Etiology: Viral hepatitis Drug Toxin  3)BILIARY CIRRHOSIS: Intrahepatic /extrahepatic biliary system - prolonged obstruction,injury to liver cell,stasis of bile,dysfunction of liver cell leads to progressive fibrosis . They are two forms of biliary c

Congenital Heart Disease Classification,Mnemonic -General Medicine

  CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE Congenital heart disease are the abnormalities of heart and great vessel due to defective development in the prenatal period. CLASSIFICATION: CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE  A) ACYNOTIC  ACYNOTIC WITH LEFT TO RIGHT SHUNT C ommon complete atrioventricular canal V entricular septal defect A trial septal defect P atent ductus arteriosus ACYNOTIC WITHOUT SHUNT E ndocardial cushion defect P ulmonary stenosis A ortic stenosis C oarctation of aorta B) CYANOTIC P ersistent truncus arteriosus E bstein anomaly with right to left shunt T etralogy of fallot C ommon atrium SEQUENTIAL MNEMONIC: CH ennai Developers have 2 branches one in A dyar aand in C entral. Adyar has 2 sub branches ,1st branch requested applicant to upload CV in AP p ,enquire PA for confirmation in 2nd branch. C entral branch requirements: P revious experience E T C VISUAL MNEMONIC: NOTE: The use of same sequential and visual mnemonic in any other website or youtube channel is strictly prohibited,all right